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Phoebus and Boreas, p. 222-223

1.  Phoebus notices a traveler "cloaked with particular care."
2.  The season is autumn and the weather is cold but changeable.
3.  The contest is to see who can make the traveler remove his cloak.
4.  Phoebus hides behind a cloud so make it cooler so that Boreas' task is harder.
5.  Phoebus wins the contest by making it so warm the traveler removes his cloak.
6.  Phoebus says few words but when he speaks he is wise; Boreas is proud, blustery, and boastful.
7.  "Clemency may be out best resource" means gentleness in the use of power may be successful where force would fail.
8.  Sometimes clemency fails to obtain the desired results, such as when a criminal, given another chance, commits another crime.

Reviewing:  Plot, p. 223

  A plot is a series of related events in a pattern of conflict, climax, and conclusion.

1.  The conflict is the competition to see whether the sun or wind can force the traveler to take his cloak off.
2.  The climax occurs when the sun comes from behind the cloud and begins to shine, making the cloak too warm for the traveler.

TheStone, p. 226

1.  The narrator is the stonecutter.
2.  The narrator seems to have special feelings for the woman because he went to break the sad news to her; lines 58-64 reveal strong sympathetic concern for her.
3.  A rock loosened by the blast fell on him because he had been "careless of the warning call."
4.  The woman has died according to the last three lines.
5.  The main body of the poem prepares the reader for the ending:  her heart has "died," she is "like a ghost," her lips are "bloodless," death carves on the woman's heart as the speaker cuts the stone.
6.  The woman is singleminded as she watches the stone being cut for her lover and waits to join him in death.
7.  The title might refer to the stone that killed the lover, the gravestone that is being cut, and the woman's heart that is like a stone.

Inference, p. 226

An inference is a reasonable conclusion about behavior or meaning from limited details given by the author.
From the last two lines we infer that the woman has died.

MyFather&Figtree, p. 227-228

1.  The constant element is figtrees or figs.
2.  The speaker shrugs, not imprerssed by the taste of dried figs.
3.  The father neglects his gardens ecause his heart is set on a figtree; other plants don't interest  him.
4.  The father is from the Middle East.  He uses the Moslem name for God and chants a song in Arabic.
5.  The figtree reminds him of his youth in his homeland.
6.  He is excited and calls his daughter, chanting a song.
7.  Everyone has links with the past and times that they wish they could return to.

The Fox and the Woodcutter, p. 229-230

1.  The man tries to betray the fox by pointing his finger at her hiding place.
2.  The The woodcutter fails in his attempt to betray the fox because the hunter believes what the old man says and ignores the gesture.
3.  Hypocrites will be punished in the end.
4.  The fable would be one-sided if the hunter were hunting something defenseless, like a lamb.   Foxes are supposed to be wily and able to take care of themselves.
5.  Reading Literature Skillfully - Conclusions and Generalizations.P.229

A conclusion is a broad idea the reader can draw from specific information.
1.  Someone who gives lip service to a promise while breaking it through actions has no integrity.  Justice will often catch u with such dishonesty.

MyCousinAgatha/APoisonTree, p. 231
1.  Unexpressed anger grows.
2.  "It" is the speaker's hidden anger.
3.  Anger is compared to a tree that flourishes with the speaker's tears and the sun of his smiles, producing a ppoisonous apple.
4.  On a literal level, the foe is attracted to the apple, tries to steal it, and is poisoned.  One can infer the speaker develops a vengeful plot, lures his foe with something irresistible, and then springs the trap.
5.  In line 15 he is "glad" at seeing his vanquished foe, but the poem may also be seen as a confession; maybe he is remorseful for his destructive behavior.

Vocabulary - Context, 232.

1.  waft
2.  wrath
3.  dexterity
4.  naught
5.  chagrin

Biographies, p. 233

LaFontaine wrote Phoebus and Boreas and was fron France.  1621-1695
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson wrote The Stone and was from Hexham, in the north of England.  1878-1962
Naomi Shihab Nye was born in St. Louis and lives in San Antonio.  She wrote MyFather and the Figtree.  1952
Aesop wrote Aesop's Fables and it is not known if he really existed.  References to him exist in the works of Plutarch and Aristotle.  A theory is that he was a Phrygian slave who was freed and traveled about the country telling his fables.  A statue of an ugly dwarf is supposed to be Aesop.  620-560? BC
William Blake wrote The Poison Tree and his only formal education was in art.  He studied in London, his birthplace and was apprenticed as an engraver at 14.  He was unknown in his time but recognized as a poetic genius in the 20th century.  1757-1827.

IWanderedLonelyAsACloud, p. 235
1.  Daffodils attract the attention of the speaker.
2.  The number of daffodils is emphasized in the second stanza.
3.  He can't resist in sharing in the joy of the moment.
4.  The "wealth" is the remembered joy that brightens duller moments.
5.  The "inward eye" is the imagination, which recalls scenes from the past.

Applying:  Lyric, p. 235
A lyric is a short poem expressing the feelings of a poet--joy, sorrow, exuberance, melancholy, elation, regret.
1.  The sight of "A host of golden daffodils" has precipitated the feelings of the poet.
2.  The emotion that is felt is more powerful because the speaker understands the "wealth the show to me had brought."

TheCrazyWoman, p. 236
1.  The speaker will sing a November song, because it is gray and is more appropriate for her than a happy, May song.
2.  People normally sing May songs and they will think she is crazy.
3.  "Little" people means small-minded people.
4.  Just because others think a person is crazy doesn't mean that person is.  It just means that person is different from other people.
5.  Your opinion here.
The woman wants to focus on the way others see her, not on the songs.
6.  The song might reflect injustice, deprivation, or hardship.

Gift, p. 237, by Czeslaw Milosz
1.  Desire for possessions has kept the speaker from being happy in the past.
2.  The speaker is happy because the fog lifts early, the speaker works in the garden; hummingbirds flit around the flowers; he can see the "blue sea and sails."
3.  Happiness that just comes without one striving for it is a gift, rather than a right or a reward.
4.  This line gives a positive feeling to the poem.
5.  Some people can be happy by noting the absence of hardship in their lives (being grateful for what one has.)

Hope, by Lisel Mueller, USA, 238
1.  Hope "hovers in dark corners".
2.  "It" means ope and always appears at the beginning of a line.
3.  The plants are reproducing themselves.  Hope is in the chance that the seed will fall in a receptive place.
4.  A common (but not scientifically accurate) belief is that is a worm is cut, each segment will regenerate itself.
5.  Hope is a unique gift because it cannot be destroyed.  It "refutes death" with belief in life after death.  It "invents the future" with the belief that things will get better.
6.  The poet hopes her message of hope will be conveyed to the reader.

New Face, p. 240, by Alice Walker, USA
1.  Rather than brooding and fretting about love in her life, she will welcome it whenever it comes.
2.  The words, 'I have learned" complete the meaning of lines 4-10.
3.  The "dark mysteries/of the blood" mean the emotional and physical feelings that come with being in love.
4.  "Source" means the "rush of feelings" of being in love.
5.  "Twin and triple/selves" means the two lovers become twins to each other and, in the union of their love, become still another being--the triple self--(or what else could make them become three people?)
6.  "New face" means the face of the "new" or different person love has made of the speaker.
7.  "New Face" hints at the transfiguring power of love that is the theme of the poem.

Reviewing:  Lyric., p. 240

A lyric is a relatively short poem expressing the poet's emotions or feelings.
1.  Love has caused the emotion.
2.  The emotion is clearly joy, and its effect is transfiguring, bestowing a "new face" on the speaker.

Biographies, p. 241

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) - wrote I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
He said 'Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings."  He lived in the natural grandeur of the mountainous Lake District of northwestern England, which inspired his poems. He was appointed Poet Laureate of England in 1843.

Czeslaw Milosz, p. 242 (1911 -

Born in Lithuania, he became one of the leaders of a new poetry movement in Poland during the 1930's and fought in the Resistance against the Nazis in WW2.  He came to the US to teach at the University of California, at Berkeley.  He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980.

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917 - )

Born in Topeka, Kansas, she grew up in Chicago and her poems identify with that city.  Her poetry is vivid in diction and image, evoking a slum apartment or street scene in a few short lines.

Lisel Mueller (1924 - )
Born in Hamburg, Germany, she fled from the country with her family in 1939 and settled in Indiana.  She lives in Illinois, near the Great Lakes.  She won the Lamont Poetry Prize in 1976.

Alice Walker (1944 - )
Born in Eatonton, Beorgia and attended Sarah Lawrence College, Alice Walker graduated in 1966.  By the age of 29 she had written five books.  She has taught creative writing and black literature at several colleges nationwide.  In 1983, she won an American Book Award for her novel The Color Purple.

  To Julia de Burgos, by Julia de Burgos, Puerto Rico, p. 243
1.  "I" is the julia who communicates through poems.
2.  "you" is the Julia who lives as "lady of the houe" in the real, social world.
3.  "They" are people who say that the Julia of poetry is "giving...away" the social Julia.
4.  The living, or social, Julia is the "covering" in that she lives within social conventions, thereby hiding the poetic Julia.
Don't Ask Me What to Wear, p. 246, Sappho, Greece.
1.  The words are spoken by a mother to her daughter, Cleis.
2.  The three hair adornments are an embroidered headband, with the speaker as a young girl; a purple ribbon, with the speaker's mother; fresh flowers, with the speaker's daughter.
3.  The speaker suggests flowers for her daughter because her hair is yellow, while she and her own mother were "dark".
4.  The daughter was probably fretting about her appearance and asked her mother for advice.
5.  Yes, she suggests that a girl with yellow hair should wear only fresh flowers.
6.  This situation is probably timeless.
7.  Your opinion here.

One Perfect Rose, Dorothy Parker, USA, 247-248
1.  The messenger in Stanza 1 is a rose.
2.  For centuries people have expressed love with a rose.
3.  The rose's remark is quite romantic.
4.  First the speaker might sound reverent; next matter-of-fact; and finally somewhat scornfully.
5.  "Diamond" might seem an acceptable substitute because it represents great value.  It is also associated with love and isn't so odd as a "limousine", which is large and mechanical--an ostentatious gift. "Limousine" fits in with the comic spirit of the poem.

Applying:  Tone. p. 248
1.  In the third stanza the author shifts the meaning of the poem surprisingly; the tone is sarcastic, cynical, humorous.
2.  The romantic feeling is mocked.

If You'll Just Go to Sleep, by Gabriela Mistral, Chile, translated by Langston Hughes, p. 248-250.

1.  The speaker promises the baby a rose, a carnation, honey, bread, and a goldfish.
2.  These might appeal to the baby by their color or taste.
3.  "Just" is italicized to emphasize exhaustion and desperation by the speaker.
4.  "I say" is repeated four times, and an exclamation point ends each offer.  Fruit is added, "And more."
5.  The speaker wants the baby to sleep until day.  Previously the rquest had been just to "go to sleep."
6.  This poem is a plea.  The baby is too young to be bribed and that is supposed to make the poem humorous.

TheZoo, by Steveie Smith, Great Britain, p. 250.

1.  The lion's tears are of "ruby rage,' so he is angry and he might turn menacing.
2.  The speaker is talking to a little boy visiting the lion's cage.
3.  The speaker says that the lion has "lovely teeth and claws" to eat little boys.
4.  In the past the lion was free to roam the jungle; now he sits on a "shady shelf" in a zoo.  He is in prison.
5.  He is growing old in a zoo, a sad fate for a bold hunter.
6.  The lion is no threat at all because "His claws are blunt" and "his teeth fall out"; his tears are tears of regret over the loss of his physical prowess.
7.  Crying over the "misuse" of a talent for preying is fanciful wit; it gives the capacity for human thinking and feeling to an animal.
8.  The poem presents images of predatory violence before revealing the lion no longer has such power.

Reviewing:  Tone, p. 251

Tone is the poet's attitude toward its subject, as revealed through the language of the poem.
1.  In the speaker's frightening picture of the lion, adults recognize the darkly humorous tone that would go over a little boy's head.
2.  The speaker seems to want to entertain and frighten the little boy and give him a healthy respect for wild animals.

TheStreet, Octavio Paz, Mexico, 252-253

1.  The setting of the poem is a long, dark, silent, stony street, littered with leaves.
2.  "Someone" who is close behind the speaker copies his behavior--slowing, stopping, and running when the speaker does.
3.  There is no way out--the street is the same no matter how many times the speaker turns.
4.  "Always" tells us the speaker is not describing a single episode but one that has been repeated often.
5.  Elements are the vagueness and shadowiness of the setting, the experience of being pursued and/or falling, the feeling of having no way out, the sensation of becoming another individual in the action.
6.  Many of the feelings in the poem--sense of a divided self, frustration of rushing nowhere, fear of being overtaken--have relevance to many people's lives.

Ordinance on Lining Up, Naomi Lazard, USA, 254-255

1.  You must choose to join one of two lines--one to the right and one to the left.
2.  The line on the right moves more quickly, but in it"you will end life as a beggar."  The one to the left moves more slowly, but if you join it, "everything you believe will become nonsense."

3.  The imperative statements of the poem announce what ndividuals must and will do.  The speaker is ordering people.
4,  Too little is known about the two lines to make a wise decision about which to join.
5.  You are only told that you will become an "indispensable link" in the line--how or why is not explained.
6.  Parallels exist between the "lines" in the poem and specific choices about education, career, location, lifestyle.  Certain decisions are permanent.

Biographies 256-257

Julia de Burgos (1914-1953)
Born in Carolina, Puerto Rico and educated at the University of Puerto Rico, she published her first book in 1938 and taught briefly at the University of Havana.  She came to the US in 1940, suffered from illness and died unknown as a poet.  She has been recognized since her death as a poet.

Sappho (600BC)

Little is known about her life.  Her poems are said to have filled nine books, but only fragments have survived; these indicate that her family was aristocratic.  Her poems are simple and perfect in form.  The ancients ranked Sappho with honored writers such as Homer and called her the "Tenth Muse."  Even today she is probably the most famous Greek woman poet.

Dorothy Parker (1893-1967)

She wrote witty, cynical verse and she and Robert enchley and Robert Sherwood, a playwright became part of a goup known as the Algonquin Round Table.  She also wrote stories.

Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957)

This was a pen name for Lucila Godoy, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1945.  She is one of Chile's most distinguished poets.  She served in several international posts, including the League of Nations.

Stevie Smith (1902-1971)

Her real name was Florence Margaret Smith, but she used "Stevie" for her poetry.  She was born in Yorkshire, England, and she lived with an aunt all her life.  Her best known book of poems is called Not Waving But Drowning, in 1957.

Octavio Paz  (1914- ), 257

One of the Latin American poets best known outside Latin America; Paz published his first volume of poems before he was twenty.  He served in diplomatic posts for Mexico and was influenced by European surrealists, writers who used dream-magery techniques.  Paz won the TS Eliot Award for Creative Writing in 1987.

Naomi Lazard (1936- )

She was born in Philadelphia and attended the City College of New York.  She wrote the children's story What Amanda Saw and has served as president of the Poetry Society of America.

Improved Farm Land, Carl Sandburg, USA, 258
1.  Lines 1-2 and the last line deescribe the land as it origianlly was.
2.  Line 3 represents the cutting of trees and then the brush.
3.  The poem begins the description of the land as it is now in the middle of line 4 with the word "now."
4.  The axmen begin the destructio by chopping down the trees and brush; the dynamite, wagons and horses are used to remove the tree stumps; the plows prepare the soil for planting.  These actions are powerful, industrious and aggressive, maybe even brutal.
5.  The use of hogs implies the greed of those who have "improved" the land, changing it from a grove of beautiful trees to profitable farm land.
6.  Sandburg's title is ironic; the poem's message is that improvement is damage and loss.

Applying:  Imagery.
1.  The images appeal to sight first and then to sound and perhaps to smell. "hogs grunt over the fodder crops."
2.  The "singing family of trees" implies the joy and harmony the uncleared land produced and is a reminder of what was lost when the land was improved.
Water Picture, May Swenson, USA, 260

1.  All things are "doubled" in the pond in the park.
2.  Two unusual pictures are hanging and wriggling buildings; chimneys being legs; a flag looking like a fishhook as it waves.
3.   The swan's beak disturbs the surface of the pond and the reflections disappear.
4.  The upside-down image the bridge normally projects in the stil water triples and seems to fold up in the troubled water.
5.  The ordinary becomes surreal.  The distortions startle us into a new awareness of the images we encounter every day.

Reviewing:  Imagery.  261
1.  The senses of hearing (dogs...barking), taste (peanut-munching children) and touch (she kisses herself).
2.  The image of the chimneys is refracted or bent by the water, making them look like legs bouncing "on clouds below".

The Red Wheelbarrow, William Carlos Williams, USA, 262

1. It does not create an image; it makes a claim about the images to come.
2.  The most visually compelling words are "red," "glazed," and "white."
3.  The white chickens are not enough by themselves.
4.  The glistening red wheelbarrow is needed to complete the composition that includes white chickens.
5.  The poem would lose its emphasis on the words standing alone (upon, barrow, waater, chickens) and the visual effect of the three carefully arranged, sharply sculpted images would be lost.

Six Haiku, Matsuo Basho, 263 (Japan)
1.  Spring, like morning, is a time of awakening, budding of not-yet-named blossoms.  All haiku use images from nature.
2.  A visual image of endings evokes melancholy--complete sentences are not used, just syllables to be counted.
3.  This haiku lacks the two-part structure of the other haiku.  They are opposites in subject.  The first gives images of beginnings (spring and morning); the second of endings (autumn and dusk).  They create opposite moods (quiet joy versus melancholy.)
4.  "Soft whispers" suggests cozy intimacy and perhaps romance.
5.  The two have similar structures, with colons at ends of first lines and both concern rain.  In the third haiku, the last two lines portray a harsh scene of sparrows exposed to the elements.
6.  Basho's third haiku is likely to be the most surprising; the offer quite natural images.

Col. 2
1.  The haiku appeals to the sense of hearing: (soft whispers) sounding like spring rain.
2.  Iin late summer, the beautiful honeysuckle petals fall, and the unpleasant mosquitoes swarm--images of sight and sound signal approaching fall.
3.  What feeling do you get from the "shoal of sparrows" image?

Biographies 265

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967

Born of Swedish immigrants in Galesburg, Illinois, Sandburg left school at thirteen for jobs out west, then returned to attend Lombard College.  He worked as a newspaperman in Chicago and began to publish his poems.

May Swenson 1919-1989

Born in Logan, Utah; degree from University of Utah.  She has a tendency to play with language and combine words in original andunusual ways.

William Carlos Williams 1883-1963.

Advised any poet to write on "things with which he is familiar, simple things."  He said to detach them from ordinary experience to the  imagination.  He was a doctor in Rutherford, New Jersey, writing poetry in his free time.

Matsuo Basho 1644-1694

The greatest of all writers of haiku, he was born into a family of samurai--men of the warrior class--at a time of great peace and stability in Japan.  At eight years of age, he was taken into the service of a nobleman's son.  By the time he was nine, he had written first verses.  He did not reach the peak of his ability until his last ten years.  Some are infused with religious mysticism, but most are simple descriptions of real scenes and events.

Yosda Buson 1715-1783

Considered second only to Basho as a writer of haiku--equally famous as painter.  His subject matter isplays great appreciation of the ever-changing world.  Born Taniguchi Buson, he took the name Yosa in honor of a region near Kyoto known for scenic beauty.

Those Winter Sundays, Robert Hayden, USA
1.  The word "too" says that he also got up early on other mornings.
2.  He was taken fro granted; maybe because of "chronic angers."
3.  Their relationship was troubled.
4.  He recognizes his father's expressions of love and regrets his own indifference.
5.  The father was hardworking, stern, hot-tempered, more comfortable with actions than words.  The son is now mature and perceptive.

Applying:  Figurative Language.  266.

Figurative language is language used in a non-literal way, to add beauty, vitality, or conciseness to literary works.
1.  Blue is a cool color.  It suggests predawn darkness and coldness.
2.  The words "splintering" and "breaking" liken the cole to ice that is thawing.

Harlem, Langston Hughes, USA, 267

1.  Deferred means a dream that caqnnot be immediately realized.
2.  There is no clear answer to the questions--they are speculations.
3.  The significance of the title is talking about people in Harlem achieving the American Dream.  (blacks)
4.  His tone is frustrated, depressed, and bitter.
5.  The dream is a better life, education, jobs, housing.  The last lines suggest people might collapse under their burdens or erupt into violence.

Applying:  Simile - a figure of speech using like or as for a comparison of two unlike things.
1.  "dry up/like a raisin in the sun;" "fester like a sore;" "stink like rotten meat;" "crust and suga® over--like a syrupy sweet."
2.  The others all refer to sppoiled food.
3.  They suggest the varied effects of despair.

Afterglow, Jorge Luis Borges, Argentian, 268.
1.  The light left in the sky after the sun has set is afterglow.
2.  The sunset is bright and garish.  The afterglow is faintly colored and taut with the tension of encroaching darkness.
3.  Sunset is "always disburbing" because it signals the beginning of darkness.
4.  "Its falsity" means the impression of lingering light.
Applying:  Metaphor.  A metaphor is a figure of speech invlving an implied comparison between two unlike things.
1.  In line 5, the afterglow is described as turning "the plain to rust" because the color of the plain becomes a dark, rusty brown.
2.  The sun's setting, with drama and bright gaudy colors, is comared to the splendor and hue and cry accompanying a grea procession.
3.  Afterglow is seen after sunset, it suggests something not truly there--imagined or hallucinated.

Sunset by oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali, South Africa, 269

1.  A "tossed coin" implies a dispute or choice to be settled.The idea of the sun as a tossed coin may suggest that life is a game of chance.
2.  The sun has set, so one more day is gone.
3.  By comparing sunset to something mundane, the poet may have been trying to make the event seem ordinary and uninspiring.

Reviewing:  Metaphor.  Implied comparison between two unlike things, not using like or as.
1.  The sun is described as a coin tossed and dropped into the slot of a parking meter.
2.  The lights popping in line 6 lead one to believe the coin has dropped into a pinball machine.
3.  The "neon lights" are probably the blues, purples, reds, and oranges that tint the sky as the sun sets.

The Naming of Cats, TS Eliot, Great Britain, 270.

1.  A cat needs a "sensible, everyday" name that many cats might have.
2.  The second necessary name is peculiar, dignified and unique.
3.  Only the cat knows this name, and it meditates on it for long periods.
4.  The effect is lighthearted and the quickened tempo signals the end of the poem.  It is achieved by repeating a phrase ("of the thought") and playing with words ("ineffable effable/Effanineffable")

Applying:  Personification.  A figure of speech in which human characteristics are given to non-human things.
1.  The use of "gentlemen" and "dames" in line 10 and the fact that a cat "needs" a "dignified" name in order to "cherish his pride."
2.  The cat is said to "know" and "never confess" his name and to meditate and contemplate the thought of it.

For Anne Gregory, William Butler Yeats, Ireland, 272

1.  A man is speaking in stanza 1 and a woman in stanza 2.
2.  the same man is speaking.
3.  The wide sweep of hair may physically resemble a walled embankment.
4.  Every man who falls in love with her will do so partly because of her hair.
5.  It might, but the speaker is convinced that nothing can alter the effect of her blonde hair.
6.  The speaker is making up the ld man to convince the young woman.  That is just an opinion.

Applying:  Hyperbole, 272

Hyperbole is a figure of speech involving great exaggeration, used to reinforce stong belief and sometimes to be funny.
1.  The assertion that only God could love Anne for herself, not her hair; The effect is whimsical humor.
2.  The speaker is trying to prove his point and woo Anne.

Psalm 1.
1.  Lines 1-3 describe the way of the ungodly; lines 4-5 the way of the godly.
2.  The tree is described as near plentiful water, fruitful in season, with leaves that will not wither.
3.  For the ungodly, "the way of sinners"; for the godly, "the law of the Lord" is how they are sorted.
4.  "He" is the godly man.  "Prosper" refers to spiritual gain.
5.  The tone is one of solemn reverence.  The language uses archaic verb forms that are associated with the sacred.  Parallel phrases contribute to an effect of harmony.

The Traveler's Curse After Misdirection, Robert Graves, Great Britain, 279.

1.  "They" are people who have given him wrong directions.
2.  The curse is suitable as revenge because he wants those who gave him the wrong directions to be sent on a wrong-way trip.
3.  It becomes progressively more severe.
4.  They produce a comic and absurd finish to the poem.  The hyperbole of continually breaking a neck effectively completes the speaker's growing loss of control over his outrage.
5.  The tone is angry but humorously so.  There is too much hyperbole to take it seriously.  It is letting the speaker let off steam.

Applying:  Rhythm.  Rhythm is the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in speech and writing.

The Fool and the Poet

1.  "Sir" is the fool of the title.
2.  The speaker of the poem is the poet.
3.  Poets are fools is admitted by the speaker.  We shold not take him at his word, because he probably would not truly admit to being a fool since he is a poet.
4.  He is not a poet but he is a fool.
5.  The poem is an insult, but the speaker is more interested in being witty and "showing up" the fool than in venting anger.

Applying:  Rhyme.  Rhyme is the repetition of similar or identical sounds in at least the final accented syllable of two or more words.

1.  The rhyme scheme is aa bb

2.  The two principal words of the title provide the two rhymes.
3.  The second is much more unusual.

Sonnet 65, William Shakespeare, Great Britain, 281.

1.  "Sad mortality" overcomes brass, stone, earth, and sea.
2.  Beauty is as fragile as a flower.
3.  Summer is threatened by Time.
4.  The "fearful meditation" is the thought that nothing escapes time's destruction.
5.  The last two lines provides the answer to the preceding questions.  His love's beauty can escape time's destruction if the poet can capture it in a poem.
6.  Time is a warrior with a battering ram and a swift foot.

7.  The words applyiong to "my love" are "beauty", "flower," "summer's honey breath," "best jewel."

8.  The metaphors help convey the beauty, transitoriness and value of the loved one.
9.  The power of the poet's words is the "miracle" that might overcome Time.

Applying:  Aliteration.  Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.
1.  since/stone/sea; brass/boundless/but; nor/nor/nor.
2.  "H" is a breathy sound and the line personifies summer as having breath.

The Grasshopper and Cricket, John Keats, Great Britain, 282

1.  The season of the year is summer.  "birds are faint with the hot sun," cooling trees," "new-mown mead," "grasshopper," "summer luxury," and "pleasant weed."
2.  They are hot and therefore "hiding" in trees.
3.  The grasshopper's "voice" comes frm the hedges in the mead (meadow).

4.  the season in the second part is winter.  The song is the cricket's song.
5.  The grasshopper's chirp, the cricket's chirp and the songs of birds are "poetry of earth."
6.  Line 1, "The poetry of earth is never dead" is repeated with variation in line9.  The season shifts to winter, and the poet shows how the "poetry of the earth" changes but does not cease.
7.  Both sing in warmth.   The grasshopper sings outdoors in summer sun; the cricket sings indoors in warmth of the stove.
8.  The warmth of the stove on a frosty winter night causes drowsiness and makes the person feel as if it were summer and the cricket's song were that of the grasshopper.
9.  The blending helps reinforce the continuity of the song and theme of poem--"poetry ot earth is never dead."

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